For most of us, the idea of buying a new car fills our hearts with dread. We nervously approach the salesperson. We discuss. We haggle. We finally walk out of the showroom with the keys in our hand, but we cant shake the feeling that we may have overpaid for the car.How do you know what you should be paying for a new car? The answer is easy: Do your homework. A little bit of time spent researching at home gives you the option of purchasing a car with confidence.The sticker priceThe "sticker price" of any vehicle is a nice bit of fiction. It is an inflated dream the dealership would love to realize. Car salespeople tell you that the sticker price should be the starting point of your negotiations. It shouldnt be. In fact, the sticker price bears no relevance whatsoever to the proceedings to come. Dont even look at it. The only reason to glance at the sticker in the window is to determine what options are available on that specific car if you are thinking of purchasing it off the lot. Otherwise, disregard sticker price entirely.Where do I start?Your research should be complete before you ever leave the house. Begin by choosing the perfect vehicle. All car manufacturers have detailed websites that allow you to research the vehicle thoroughly and even build an ideal car. Once you have found the ideal car, its time to find out how much the car really costs. Again, the internet is your friend.Many websites offer insight into how much the dealership actually paid for the car the invoice price. This price should be your starting point for negotiations. Once you know what the dealership has paid for the car, you can figure out what a reasonable profit would be.Think youre done? Not quite. While figuring out the profit margin of the dealer can be a good strategy to getting a better price on a car, there are a few other things to consider as well.Check to see if the dealer is receiving any rebates from the manufacturer on the vehicle. These rebates are offered to dealers on certain models. If a rebate is available, then even if the dealership sells at or below invoice price, they are still making a profit. Most car-comparison websites offer this information.Consider the popularity of the model. If you are trying to purchase a car that is in extremely high demand, you may find that there is no negotiation. The sticker price or even above may be the best deal youll find. Thankfully, this is an unusual situation. With most car models, there is significant room to bargain a price you're comfortable with.Once youve gathered all your information, you are ready to shop. Visit several dealerships and see who offers the best price. Once your salesperson realizes you are armed with all the inside info, youll get the best deal possible.
Defensive driving gives you the essentials on road safety measurements. All the drivers must know this simple driving fact that you can control your action(s) on most of the on-road occasions, but you cannot control or cant even know what is happening with other drivers on the road. So, defensive driving provides ample information and knowledge to all those people who are looking for comprehensive and lifetime solutions against accidents and other on-road mishaps.Defensive driving is also known as advanced driving. This is one sophisticated and next level type of training that automobile driver can undertake and learn to master the basic mechanics of driving. They can indeed master all the rules of roads. The aim of the training is to minimize the risk of driving by proactively and spontaneously avoiding dangerous situations despite incorrect actions or adverse conditions on the road. All these and much more can be accomplished via commitment to specific rules as the constant practice of particular driving techniques.Well, considering the true essence and aspect of defensive driving, you would find out that it is a style of driving wherein you need to take every possible precaution to prevent any mishap from happening. Defensive driving is a brilliant way of keeping you and your family safe while driving.So, let us take a look at some of the rules relating to defensive driving.The first and the foremost aspect, is to become fully prepared before taking on your vehicle on the road. You need to check and ensure certain important aspects like water levels, gas, and oil and tire pressures of your vehicle. You also need to check seats, mirrors and ensure important documentations like insurance before hitting the roads.The second aspect related to defensive driving is that you should never react to road rage and neither display it. This ensures that you dont break traffic rules recklessly and arrive to any condition which causes harm to you or others.It is advisable that you purchase bright colored cars. Car colors like yellow, orange or red can make your car easily visible and prominent on the roads. On an average basis, bright colored cars are less likely to be involved in an accident rather than light colored cars.Usage of headlights is an important aspect related to defensive driving. It ensures that others can see you coming and you can also see clearly during night driving. While you drive, you need to ensure that you apply the three second rule. This rule states that you should at least maintain a driving time of 3 seconds behind the vehicle in front of you. You should maintain this driving time all of the times. However, if the car condition or environmental conditions are bad, you should increase this driving time to 5 seconds.While driving you should avoid the cars that reflect signs of being damaged down or are broken down. Researches and studies have shown that these cars are prominently driven by bad drivers.Follow defensive driving and have a happy and safe driving!
Safety And Reliability Of Our Vehicle's Steering - We Owe A Debt To Early Hot Rodders And Auto Racers
We owe a debt of gratitude to early hot rodders. Those who modified and raced cars in their day pushed along the development and evolution of cars and vehicle steering mechanisms so now we can count on precise, safe and reliable steering mechanisms and units without question.It is always interesting that is usually not the factory design teams, with all their resources, that push along developments and modifications in the automotive industry. It is often the hobbyist, the guy in his home garage, who under competition leads to the development and progression of what becomes improvements and modifications in the automotive. At a later point the automotive industry will step in to mass produce the improvements into features and options that gain widespread use in our vehicles and on our highways.Just before and after the 1940s vintage car periods most sport car enthusiasts and hot rodders were driving pre-1935 Fords. The most popular steering gears swapped among speed and hot rod enthusiasts was the pre-1934 Ford steering gear units. It had a very fast steering ratio and could easily fit the Model A and 32 car frames. Parts were readily available, the cars were lightweight and few rodders felt the need to look any further.By the early 1950s, the 37 - 1948 Ford steering mechanisms with the transverse drag arrangement gained popularity and a following over the previous preferences. The steering was a near perfect built in for 1935-36 Ford frames and its major advantage over the older units was it was self centering. After a turn in completed, the worm sector floats back to center. However if the steering was mounted normally in a pre-1935 chassis , a mount had to be built on the inside of the frame rail and boxing the frame was necessary to eliminate rail flexing.. Naturally since the pitman arm swung horizontally (cross steering) and was tied into the right front spindle. 1940s era Ford spindles had to be used. But it was no big deal and the most modern rods of the era went this route, even to the extent of adding 1940 Ford steering wheels, shift linkage and dashboards.The Gemmer box was also turned on its side and mounted through the frame like the original. Usually a horizontal plate was welded on top of the rail to hold the steering, and the pitman arm was rotated 90 degrees so that it could be pinned up. A parallel drag link could then be used with a dropped front axle. But the evil bump steer was ever present.In the late Fifties, another steering box started to gain popularity with street rodders. This was the parallel drag line steering from the 1954 and later Ford and Chevy pickups. (The Ford F-100 being the most popular of all). To install the Ford box in a Model T frame it was easiest to run the column down thought the floorboard almost between the drivers legs. Mounts for the gear box were fabricated and the pitman arm was modified to point straight down or was replaced with a new one flame cut out of half inch steel plate. Only minor modifications to the box itself were needed to bolt the pickup steering into the 1928-34 frames.The Ford pickup box became the standard hot rod steering gear for many years to come, but the Chevy pickup steering was the easier of the two to install. It required only minor frame trimming to fit, but it never reached the level of popularity of the Ford box.Then along came the time of the mid 60s Dearborn introduced the Ford Mustang. The steering box of the Mustang car was a great toy for the hot rodders.This was the final step towards the evolution of steering gears.All in all although our steering mechanisms in our cars, SUVs, trucks and other vehicle are now of more modern designs we owe a debt of gratitude to the hot rodders of their day for pushing along the evolution of precise and reliable steering gears and mechanisms for our vehicles.
Biodiesel blends are becoming more essential to the every day operation of farm vehicles and machinery, trucks, buses and boats both big and small. This is because there are a slew of advantages to using one of the designer fuel biodiesel fuel blends on the market.First of all any substance that helps reduce the U.S. dependence on foreign fossil fuel oils cant help but be a good thing. This is particularly true in the United States, which has resorted to a fair amount of aggression to take control of the worlds oil supplies. If you cut your gasoline or diesel with a biodiesel fuel blend such as fuel boost you are cutting down on your need to use foreign fossil fuels and creating jobs for Americans who grow the soy and canola that is used to make biodiesel blends.Biodiesel can be used in a blend in many different kinds of existing diesel engines without modification. Biodiesel burns substantially cleaner than petroleum based diesel fuel in both vehicles and machinery.Biodiesel is carbon-neutral which means that its contribution to global warming is negligible compared to petroleum products. In addition to displacing imported petroleum, biodiesel blends reduce air pollution and greenhouse gases. A 1998 biodiesel lifecycle study, jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, concluded biodiesel reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 78 percent (compared to petroleum diesel.) The CO released into the atmosphere when biodiesel burned is recycled by plants, which produce more oxygen.Biodiesel is a lubricant that reduces wear and tear on engine parts by almost one half! In fact it is already added to many petrodiesel fuels to increase the lubricity of diesel engines and fuel systems. It is also a solvent that can help keep your system clean.Sick of seeing black smoke flume out from your exhaust. Biodiesel burns cleaner and produces less smoke. The smoke it does produce is white as opposed to back. The exhaust from biodiesel also smells better. People say it reminds them of the smell of popcorn or French fries.Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel to have fully completed the health effects testing requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as biodiesel produces less sulfur emissions than regular diesel.However biodiesel is still not that widely available commercially. Still the consumption of biodiesel has greatly increased since 2001. This is why so many people are ordering their own car conversion grease car kits or home brewing systems to make their own biodiesel.If you have an older machine, then there is a chance that using a biodiesel fuel additive such as FuelBoost could have the effect of cleaning or thinning old petroleum from the walls of your fuel lines and clog up your engine.Biodiesel in a pure form (such as B100) has a high gelling point compared to other fuels. This means that it thickens when the temperature falls below the freezing point (32 F). However there are solutions to this such as using a blend of biodiesel called B20. B20 is a blend of 20% biodiesel and 80% regular diesel and has a gelling point of 15 degrees F. Adding a biodiesel additive such as Fuel Boost to the blend also lowers the gel point even further so that your fuel lines dont clog up in the winter.
If you have are in love with your bike, chances are you will be very, very particular about what sort of exhaust pipes you use. The right ones can make your machine look and feel like a million dollar baby or make it a design nightmare.The motorcycle exhaust pipe has a very definite role to play in the dynamics of a bike. It directs the gases that come out of the combustion chamber, away from the machine and therefore the rider. Where do these gases come from and why is it important that they be directed away?The combustion engine in a motorcycle creates a series of explosions that propel the bike forward. Since we are talking of explosive combustion, we are talking of noise and exhaust gases. Now if these gases were thrown out straight from the exhaust port, you would have a problem on your hands. The front tyres would gradually melt under the heat and whats more, your machine would sound like a disgruntled missile.That is why bike manufacturers design the exhaust pipes carefully. These pipes take the emitted gas away from the exhaust port, pass them through what we call a muffler or a silencer and then throw them away behind the bike, away from the rider. By the time the gases pass out of the exhaust, they have already cooled off and there is little chance of any unwanted combustion.The technology used to silence the explosive gases is simple. The gases flow at a great speed into the motorcycle exhaust pipes, which are narrow. Then they enter the muffler, which has more space. As the gases expand into the body of the muffler, they slow down and lose some of the sound energy. There are perforated baffles in the muffler that reduce the noise further. So, by the time the gases emerge from the motorcycle exhaust pipes, the noise has been cut down to a reasonable level. It is also important to remember that a good exhaust design can increase the usable power generated by your bikes engine. Typically, motorcycle exhausts are of two kinds: the full exhaust system and the slip-on system. The full exhaust system connects the pipes to the head of the engine while the slip-on exhaust connects them to the opening where the muffler is. The former is ideal for those who run their machine at full throttle over long distance. The slip on exhaust system is usually used for street bikes. This allows a little more acceleration from the bike.